Mental Models

Soma in a Brave New World

When one of your favorite authors mentions a book that influenced his / her thinking, you have to pick it up to understand the root source behind the books that impacted you. A Brave New World by Aldous Huxley is one of the books that influenced Yuval Noah Harrari, bestselling author of Sapiens and Homo Deus.

Even though I finished reading this 1930’s dystopian novel about a month ago and have been mulling over in my thoughts about the book, I haven’t quite been sure of how to express them in writing. But here is an attempt at it.

One particular word from the book stuck with me; it’s called Soma.

The book describes a New World into the future where almost everyone is happy. There are no blood relationships, only sex. People just work the amount they have to based on the “status” they were assigned at the time of birth. Babies are conditioned in test-tubes at the time of birth and that defines their lives. There is no concept of the American Dream. Everyone lives a happy and content life. And if for some reason, something upsets you, there is an easy fix and that is Soma. Soma is a happy drug. It’s a pill that you just pop in and you become satisfied again.

“Now – such is progress – no leisure from pleasure, not a moment to sit down and think.” And if ever by some unlucky chance your happy state of mind is distracted, “there is always soma, delicious soma, half a gramme for a half-holiday, a gramme for a weekend, two grammes for a trip to the gorgeous East…”

The concept of Soma really disturbed me, and I immediately started thinking about analogies to Soma in today’s world. Does alcohol serve the purpose of Soma for many of us? Is juul the new Soma? And, what’s the next quick-fix drug we are going to use because we can’t confront our unhappy / confused state of mind? Have a lot of us also forgotten how to think because we are constantly distracted by social media, the next great vacation to plan and long hours at work?

I tried to argue with myself that Soma could also be the simple pleasures of life such as enjoying a good meal with a loved one, exercising, reading, or even some good wine and beer with old friends. Aren’t those happiness pills too? If so, there may be nothing wrong with Soma.

But then I realized that Aldous Huxley is referring to Soma as a drug that intentionally blocks our ability to think clearly and gives us a false sense of happiness when we are under the influence of that drug. The point being that a lot of us are afraid to confront our discontented state of mind and so we look towards Soma to make us feel “happy” and forget our worries. But it’s unlikely that you will find true happiness unless you are willing to confront your struggles. It’s not about finding quick and easy solutions. It’s about facing those challenges and coming out stronger. It’s about enjoying the roller-coaster ride (ups and downs) of life.

Are we presently living in this Brave New World that Aldous Huxley conceived of more than 80 years ago? Pick up the book. It will make you think.

Recommended Book: A Brave New World by Aldous Huxley

Mental Models

Ikigai: Purpose in Action

I visited Japan after graduation and like Tim Urban (one of my favorite bloggers), I too failed to figure it out. Even though I stayed with a local friend in Japan for a few days and traveled alone, which forced me to interact with the local people, I found it very difficult to even begin to understand the Japanese culture. Nonetheless, I fell in love with the place (despite only being able to eat white rice on a vegetarian diet) and I came back and started reading some of their very thought-provoking philosophies. I’ll begin with Ikigai.

Ikigai is a concept to improve work and life. It’s about finding happiness in everyday life, such that the sum of small joys adds up to a more meaningful life. It is essentially the convergence of four primary elements:

  1. What you love (your passion)
  2. What the world needs (your mission)
  3. What you are good at (your vocation)
  4. What you can get paid for (your profession)


Of course not everyone has figured out what these four elements even mean for us (I’m still on the journey), but it’s a great lens and framework to use. It’s about “Purpose in Action.” Find your purpose. Take action.

If you have discovered your Ikigai or are still exploring like me, I would love to hear your stories – drop me a note! Till then, enjoy these pictures of my friends and me at a teenage photo studio in Tokyo!


Recommended article:

More to come on Ikigai once I’ve read the book: Ikigai: The Japanese Secret to a Long and Happy Life by Hector Garcia

Mental Models

Jeff Bezos on Long-Term Thinking

Jeff Bezos is currently the richest man on Earth. In hindsight, it’s easy to think that Amazon was bound to be a success with the boom in technology and internet. However, the Amazon story is quite remarkable and Bezos went through his fair share of struggles before this giant empire got established. After the initial madness and motto of “Get Big Fast”, Bezos decided to deploy a “Get the House in Order” philosophy and never shied away from thinking longer-term. He knew that great businesses fail because they are reluctant to embrace promising new markets that might undermine their traditional businesses and that do not appear to satisfy their short-term growth requirements. So, Bezos always kept an eye on the future and thus the Kindle and Amazon Web Services (the fastest growing and the most profitable segment) were born.

One of my most favorite Jeff theories is “the regret minimization framework”, which he came up with when he was switching from his lucrative job at D.E. Shaw to potentially starting Amazon.

“When you are in the thick of things, you can get confused by small stuff. I knew when I was eighty that I would never, for example, think about why I walked away from my 1994 Wall Street bonus right in the middle of the year at the worst possible time. That kind of thing just isn’t something you worry about when you’re eighty years old. At the same time, I knew that I might sincerely regret not having participated in this thing called the Internet that I thought was going to be a revolutionizing event. When I thought about it that way, it was incredibly easy to make the decision.” – Jeff Bezos

Bezos’ point is that when you start thinking about the longer-term consequences, the small everyday confusions begin to disappear.

Even in the worst of times, Bezos did not give up this attitude. During the dot-com bubble burst, Amazon stock dropped from $57 to $33, shedding almost half its value. Bezos scrawled “I am not my stock price” on the whiteboard in his office and instructed everyone to ignore the mounting pessimism. “You don’t feel thirty percent smarter when the stock goes up by thirty percent so when the stock goes down you shouldn’t feel thirty percent dumber,” he said at an all-hands meeting. He quoted Ben Graham, “In the short term, the stock market is a voting machine. In the long run, it’s a weighing machine that measures a company’s true value. If Amazon stayed focused on the customer, the company would be fine.”

I’ll end with some of Jeff Bezos’ main tenets:

  1. Customer obsession
  2. Be patient
  3. Invent your way out of boxes
  4. Invent your way into the future
  5. Operational excellence so you can find defects at the root and fix them

Recommended book: The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon by Brad Stone

Recommended Podcast: The Investors Podcast: Learning from Jeff Bezos


failure, underdogs, power

Fail and Join the Underdog Club

You have the most power when you have been battered and it seems like there is no way to crawl back up. It sounds counter-intuitive, but when you have been beaten to the ground, you find new found energy and creative solutions to slowly come back up. It’s a “nothing to lose” and “nothing to be afraid of” mentality. You have the most power because you fear less. After all, what’s the worst that can happen when you have already encountered failures and terrible situations? You can gladly step into the Underdog Club and unleash your force.

Why are there are so many dyslexic entrepreneurs? Take the likes of Richard Branson, Daymond John and countless others. Growing up, these people were subjects of humiliation. They realized that they would have to take more risk in life to prove themselves. They didn’t fear anything because after all, they had nothing to lose. So, why not take the leap? The risk could only result in upside. Failure had empowered them. (Read Gary Cohn’s story).

Similarly, a disproportionate number of successful and famous people witnessed the death of at least one parent before the age of 20. When you realize that death can be so sudden and imminent and when you have seen terrible times such as losing a loved one, it makes it harder for you to be afraid of much else in life. Really, what is the worst that can happen? This fearless attitude allows them to take more risks and create memories.

Hey, when face to face with all our fears
Learned our lessons through the tears
Made memories we knew would never fade

-Avicci, The Nights

Failures empower you. Failures give you a new sense of power. Failures make you fearless. The next time you fail at something, don’t chide yourself for it. Ask yourself, what is my new strength?

What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger. If you have stories of when you were empowered through failing, I would love to hear them – please do comment.

Recommended book: David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the Art of Battling Giants by Malcolm Gladwell

evolution, improvement

Constant Evolution

Do you wake up and do the same thing every weekday? Jump out of bed, mindlessly rush to work, work your 8/10/12 hour jobs, perhaps get dinner with a friend or a workout in, fall back asleep and then repeat? In those 24 hours, did you challenge yourself? How did you think about improving yourself, even if it was in the smallest of ways? Could you have woken up 10 minutes earlier to give another shot at that meditation practice which never seems to “clear your mind” and so you decided to give up? Could you have read 10 minutes of a book before going to bed, so that inch by inch you end up having a stack of books you’ve read? Could you maybe just have made your bed this morning? Easiest of all: could you have smiled at a stranger today? And yes, you have the time to do all of this.

Ray Dalio says that true pleasure in life comes from struggling. You work towards your goals, you fail, you get back up, you accomplish your goal and then you move on to the next challenge. It’s about constantly evolving. Each day adds up. Are you using each day to work towards these short-term and long-term goals?

Challenge yourself everyday. Use the power of momentum and compounding. It builds up. You will look back at a year (even 2/4/6 months) from now and notice the difference. Create memories. Stop being complacent.

Recommended book: Off the Clock: Feel Less Busy While Getting More Done by Laura Vanderkam (to make best use of your time)